There was no immediate word from Damascus, but the deadly chain of events started when Israeli missiles struck the coastal region of Latakia on Monday. "It goes without saying that we must get to the bottom of this".
The opposition fighters are to give up their heavy weapons, mortars and tanks by October 10, Putin said. He did not elaborate but said "these will be the steps that everyone will notice". "The Turkish fighter deliberately shot down our aircraft".
Russian Defense Minister Sergei Shoigu also accused Israel of failing to inform the Russian military of its plans, which he said would have been in the "spirit" of Israeli-Russian coordination in Syria.
"Using the Russian jet as a shield, the Israeli pilots put it in the fire of Syrian air defense systems", spokesman Maj.
Jan Franke has the latest from Tel Aviv.
"As for retaliatory measures, they will be first and foremost aimed at additionally ensuring the security of our military personnel and facilities in Syria", Putin said.
Turkish troops are now on the ground in northern Syria and are patrolling the skies over the region as Ankara seeks to ramp up its influence there and curb the expansion of Syrian Kurdish-controlled territory.
The Russian air base Hmeimim, which is considered the most important in the country, is located nearby, to the south. Russia maintains several rings of protective anti-aircraft missile defenses around the base.
Israel's military has expressed "sorrow" over deaths of Russian servicemen, though denied its planes had already left Syrian airspace when the Russian plane was taken down.
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Since sending forces to support the regime of Syrian President Bashar al-Assad in 2015, Russian Federation has been a dominant player in the conflict, at times struggling to manage the competing interests of the other powers there.
Russia blamed Israel after Syria, its own ally, shot down a Russian planes above the Mediterranean in a wild air battled on Monday night.
Israel has carried out a number of airstrikes on Syrian territory targeting what is says are weapons shipments intended for Iran or Iranian-backed Hezbollah, an extremist group based in Lebanon and deemed a terrorist organization by both the USA and Israel.
It confirmed it "targeted" a Syrian military facility the IDF said was about to transfer weapons to Hezbollah on behalf of Iran. From Tel Aviv's perspective, Israel can not tolerate such a threat.
"These weapons were meant to attack Israel, and posed an intolerable threat against it", IDF said. As a result, a Russian airplane came under fire from Syria's anti-aircraft systems.
Earlier this month, Putin publicly rebuffed a proposal from Erdogan for a truce when the two met along with Iran's president at a summit in Tehran. In this case, Russian-Israeli agreements on the prevention of risky incidents were not observed.
An Ilyushin Il-20 "Coot" surveillance aircraft of the Russian Aerospace Force (VKS) was accidentally shot down by Syrian forces defending against an Israeli air raid on 17 September. "During the strike against the target in Latakia, the Russian plane that was then hit was not within the area of the operation".
The IDF also promised to cooperate with Russian Federation to help investigate the incident.
Putin said the Kremlin will look into circumstances surrounding the incident.