This latest round makes good on the president's promise in June to impose a 25% tariff on $50 billion in Chinese goods.
China fired back warning it would impose duties on $60 billion in U.S. goods.
The US will impose a 25% tariff on $16 billion worth of Chinese goods starting August 23.
The trade representative said the tariffs were a response to an investigation, released this year, which found China's policies on technology transfer, intellectual property and innovation were unreasonable and discriminatory, and placed an unfair burden United States commerce.
On Tuesday, the administration said it had made a decision to go ahead with tariffs on 279 of the 284 items added in June; they're worth about $16 billion a year.
Mr Trump has said he would be willing to hit all of China's imports with duties.
China's exports soared in July, showing little impact from United States tariffs, as Washington finalises more duties on Chinese imports.
The US says the tariffs are to penalise China for "unfair" trade practices.
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Among the products removed from the earlier list on $16 billion of imports were shipping containers, including those used by freight companies.
The surplus with the United States was higher than China's overall trade surplus in July, which was $28.05 billion, indicating China ran a net trade deficit with the world excluding the U.S.
China has already retaliated against the United States with its own tariffs and proposed others if Washington goes ahead with all its threats. Chinese imports worth $34 billion would be subject to the new 25% tariff as of July 6, with another $16 billion worth of imports subject to the tariff at a later date.China retaliateswith an equivalent set of tariffs.
The trade balance between the two countries, which is at the center of the tariffs tussle, continued to be in favor of China.
June 18: Trumpthreatens a 10% tariff on another $200 billion worth of Chinese goods.
China has not yet given a date for its previously announced retaliatory tariffs on $16 billion in US goods, which will target commodities such as crude oil, natural gas, coal and some refined oil products.
Nearly 300 Chinese goods face U.S. import taxes of 25 per cent from August 23, including tractors, motorcycles and semiconductors.
In March 2018, the USTR had released the findings of its "exhaustive" Section 301 investigation that found China's acts, policies and practices related to technology transfer, intellectual property, and innovation are "unreasonable and discriminatory and burden USA commerce".