The United States has already imposed 25 percent tariffs on $34 billion in Chinese imports and is readying 25 percent tariffs on another $16 billion worth to punish China for allegedly using predatory tactics to obtain US technology.
The ministry said timing of the implementation of the new tariffs on USA goods would depend on the actions of the US.
China is trying to seek an "equal" position in future talks with the USA with today's retaliation announcement, said Gai Xinzhe, analyst at the Bank of China's Institute of International Finance in Beijing. "It will only hurt themselves".
U.S. Trade Representative Robert Lighthizer said Trump directed the increase from a previously proposed 10 percent duty because China has refused to meet U.S. demands and has imposed retaliatory tariffs on U.S. goods.
"China's position remains clear and unchanged: blackmail and USA pressure against the PRC will never work", the diplomat said, answering the question on the issue.
The review period for US tariffs on the next $16 billion of Chinese imports ended Tuesday, but senior administration officials said a decision had not been made yet on when or whether to impose them.
The US dollar has been strengthening since April as the central bank has been raising lending rates, which draws investors looking for higher returns.
Two Trump administration officials told reporters on a conference call that Trump remains open to communications with Beijing. "But I wouldn't draw the conclusion that the announcement we're making today is directly linked to any one practice".
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Announcing a higher tariff is required ahead of the hearings and will send a signal that the Trump administration is upping the pressure on China to make serious concessions.
The United States has already imposed 25% tariffs on Chinese goods worth $34 billion.
The ministry also took note of what it said were conflicting White House messages: threats of higher tariffs but also signals it wants to resume settlement talks.
Meanwhile, after the initial $34 billion worth of tariffs came into effect last month, a review of an additional $16 billion worth of tariffs on just under 300 separate products was initiated, with the deadline for public comments on those coming on Tuesday, July 31.
On July 10, Washington unveiled a list of another $200 billion in Chinese goods, from areas as varied as electrical machinery, leather goods and seafood, that would be hit with 10 percent import duties. The threatened tariffs of 10 percent could rise to 25 percent on thousands of products, including food, chemicals, steel and aluminum, furniture, tires, bicycles and beauty products.
"The money comes after farmers, especially soybean growers, have felt the brunt of retaliatory tariffs placed on agriculture by China and other nations that the Trump administration has penalized with tariffs on imports", NPR's Brian Naylor reported. Talks between U.S. and Chinese officials have done little to ease tensions.
The ministerial talks provided a useful occasion to inform the EU's trade partners about the results of last week's meeting between Trump and European Commission President Jean-Claude Juncker, according to a commission official.