IL shrank by 33,700 people from July 2016 to July 2017, the worst decline of any state in the U.S.in raw terms.
The agency says that's about 37,000 more people living in the state. California remains number one followed by Texas.
Pennsylvania's estimated annual population increase was in the middle of the pack of states, but was 39th in percentage and much slower than the national average. It increased its population by 2.2 percent, which took just under 37,000 new residents to accomplish.
In addition to the population estimates for the 50 states and the District of Columbia, the new estimates show that Puerto Rico had an estimated population of 3.3 million, a decline from 3.4 million in 2016. It's the fourth straight year that IL has recorded a population decline, according to the census data.
That is the largest decline in Wyoming since 1989 and well below neighboring states like Idaho, which saw the largest population increase in the nation past year at 2.2 percent.
"Domestic migration drove change in the two fastest-growing states - Idaho and Nevada - while an excess of births over deaths played a major part in the growth of the third fastest-growing state, Utah", Luke Rogers, chief of the Population Estimates Branch, said in a press release. In 2017, 38.0 percent of the nation's population lived in the South and 23.8 percent lived in the West.
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North Carolina did not make the top 10 states for percent growth, though, since it grew less than 1.4 percent from 2016 to 2017.
Meanwhile, in neighboring states such as Idaho, Colorado and Utah, the labor market continued to expand, which drew a number of people away from Wyoming.
The division's release was based on data collected by the United States Census.
Illinois' population fell by 33,703 people to just over 12.8 million, according to the estimates. By comparison, Idaho's population grew by 2.2 percent, and Missouri, by.4 percent.
The census said net worldwide migration decreased 1.8 percent between 2016 and 2017, making it the first drop since 2012-2013.